NL is an abbreviation in this wiki referring to Netherlands.
Patent system basics
There was a patent system in the Netherlands from 1515-1869, then it was abolished, then a new one restarted in 1912. Regarding the earlier period, patent numbers peaked before 1720. Only 4561 Dutch patents granted from 1800 to 1869. Khan estimates that the rate of patenting by Dutch people was only 13.4% of the rate in the US in that period. Only 140 were granted from 1851-1865,, and over 88% of these were to foreigners, which Khan indicates was a reason to abolish patent protection.
Another idea is that the abolishment came about because of a commitment to free trade, free knowledge, and innovation. It would seem that a change in policy occurred through an act dated 7 November 1910. Patents could be filed after this time and were examined for validity, including novelty. Substantial histories are cited in the footnotes here and we can delve into this.
Patent counts from both periods are summarized in charts in a convenient blog post.
The Netherlands procured their supply [of aircraft and trappings] from Lachambre in 1886, and this was handed over to a regiment of engineers stationed at Utrecht. A company was also formed in Batavia, and the German kite-balloon was introduced in 1902.
New advice on Octrooi
We received advice from Marc Dierikx, aero author at the Huygens Institute (Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Science), at the Albatrosses presentation, paraphrased here:
- Dutch patents registered by the Octrooibureau. A patent is often identified in Dutch as “octrooi”.
- A short general history of patent registration in the Netherlands is given on
Patenten en het octrooirecht (historamarond1900.nl) That website only gives information in Dutch. (Perhaps depending on browser software, translation is easy and practical.)
- Patents are registered by the Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO). You can access the databases through
- The patent register itself can be accessed on:
Singular "luchtvaartuig"(aircraft) and plural "luchtvaartuigen" are key searchterms. See Patent NL-1912-1124 for an explication of process, with "IPC or IDT classification: 62" coming up. There are Espacenet prompts on every page, but these are automated, and lead to errors in the case of antique data which may not actually be on Espacenet. Specifically IPC classification material does come up, though this may need to non-aero bulk. "Vliegtuig"(airplane) and the plural "Vliegtuigen" are key. Searchterms placed in the title field seems to be the process. So far, using these language-based tactics, we've found a moderate bulk of strictly relevant material.
Entering "62" within the IPC code field of BPP eRegister (rvo.nl), setting date parameters according to "registration date", though the results will come up with publication dates displayed, may be the most efficient approach. Aero-vocabulary grows from there. See Glossary/Dutch initially for key vessel types as pertinent to searches.
Oddities relative to Espacenet
Oddly, "62", as an IPC classification on Espacenet yields nothing, and "B62" yields 6,919 results between 1900-1917, but with no apparent prevalence of aeronautical material. We may be dealing here with a Dutch website oddity in terms of IPC versus IDT field labelling and usage ambiguity. Again, entering specifically and simply "62" within the per se IPC code field within the Dutch website yields great results. This seems to be strictly a matter of IdT classification, with the above-mentioned issue of ambiguous field labelling. There are some faulty links between individual patent pages as found on the Netherlands patent office BPP eRegister (rvo.nl) and Espacenet. Another oddity is that, although the Dutch patents of various inventors are found on Espacenet, inclusive of fairly standard IPC and CPC classification, they are not found by way of our name-based or IPC-CPC approaches to Espacenet. They have been exlusively found by way of linking to Espacenet by way of patent pages on the Netherlands patent office BPP eRegister (rvo.nl).
Patent data is somewhat funneling towards NL 62, that is "Klasse 62.", along with the "Groeps" which constitute its subcategories.
This wiki has 27 Dutch patents and 54 patents filed by Netherlanders or people in the Netherlands.
Patents filed in Netherlands: Patent NL-1912-70, Patent NL-1912-1025, Patent NL-1912-1124, Patent NL-1914-5367, Patent NL-1915-6024, Patent NL-1915-6198, Patent NL-1916-6579, Patent NL-1916-7126, Patent NL-1918-10011, Patent NL-1919-6468, Patent NL-1912-1477, Patent NL-1912-965, Patent NL-1913-2026, Patent NL-1913-1195, Patent NL-1913-1235, Patent NL-1914-1232, Patent NL-1915-2096, Patent NL-1913-2447, Patent NL-1913-3829, Patent NL-1917-4416, Patent NL-1917-4962, Patent NL-1919-5367, Patent NL-1919-6592, Patent NL-1919-6062, Patent NL-1919-6220, Patent NL-1919-6530, Patent NL-1917-4415
Patents filed by persons from Netherlands: Patent DE-1893-76575, Patent NL-1912-70, Patent NL-1914-5367, Patent NL-1915-6024, Patent NL-1915-6198, Patent NL-1916-6579, Patent NL-1918-10011, Patent DE-1898-111522, Patent FR-1903-330617, Patent AT-1904-18518, Patent DE-1905-175273, Patent AT-1907-29720, Patent AT-1907-30952, Patent FR-1907-372168, Patent FR-1907-372167, Patent AT-1906-34959, Patent DE-1906-200676, Patent FR-1908-392401, Patent FR-1908-389974, Patent DE-1908-208218, Patent FR-1908-392048, Patent GB-1908-14327, Patent FR-1909-401459, Patent FR-1909-401460, Patent GB-1908-23347, Patent FR-1909-400591, Patent FR-1910-406865, Patent IT-1909-105393, Patent FR-1910-417029, Patent DE-1909-236695, Patent GB-1911-8339, Patent GB-1912-2540, Patent FR-1912-446544, Patent FR-1913-447992, Patent FR-1913-449344, Patent NL-1912-1477, Patent FR-1913-450882, Patent CH-1913-65652, Patent FR-1913-453823, Patent IN-1913-779, Patent ES-1913-54825, Patent US-1914-1115073, Patent NL-1913-2026, Patent NL-1913-1195, Patent NL-1913-1235, Patent NL-1914-1232, Patent NL-1915-2096, Patent US-1917-1225711, Patent GB-1918-120916, Patent NL-1913-3829, Patent NL-1917-4416, Patent NL-1917-4962, Patent GB-1918-122164, Patent US-1918-1435190
- Karel Davids (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam). Patents and patentees in the Dutch Republic between c. 1580 and 1720. History and Technology 16(3):2 63-283, January 2000, DOI:10.1080/07341510008581969
- B. Zorina Khan. An Economic History of Patent Institutions. EH.Net Encyclopedia, edited by Robert Whaples. March 16, 2008.
- Stef van Gompel. 2019. Patent Abolition: A Real-Life Historical Case Study. American University International Law Review 34:6, Article 6. https://digitalcommons.wcl.american.edu/auilr/vol34/iss4/6
- "Holland (Netherlands)" in Thompson, Handbook of Patent Law in All Countries 1905, p. 136. "No patents of any kind are allowed, but efforts have from time [to] time been made to again introduce a patent law. Holland has joined the Union for the Protection of Industrial Property, and the Government have stated their intention of bringing in a patent bill..."
- "Netherlands (Holland) and Dutch Colonies" in Thompson, Handbook of Patent Law in All Countries 1920, pp. 116–119.
- Hendrik de Lange. 6 Aug 2014.500 years of patents in the Netherlands.
- Hildebrandt, 1908, Airships Past and Present, 172.